Founded in 1867 in Switzerland by Henri Nestlé, the company merged with the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co. in 1905. By 1906, Australia was the company’s second biggest export market and the decision was made to set up a business here. The first factory was at Toogoolawah in South East Queensland. More
In the early 1900s, many butchers’ shops were still open-fronted, with the carcasses hanging where the air could circulate. In response to increasing concerns about food hygiene, New South Wales’ first meat inspector was appointed in 1908. By 1913 he reported that all except five butchers’ shops in Sydney had enclosed premises.
The passing of the Quarantine Act 1908 and its implementation in 1909 provided a national approach to the prevention and eradication of imported plant, animal and human diseases. Prior to this, individual states had been responsible for quarantine measures. The Royal Australian Mint issued a special coin in 2008 to commemorate the centenary of the Act. More
The Carlton Brewery had been operating in Bouverie Street, North Melbourne, since the 1860s, but in 1907 it united with the Foster’s, Victoria, Shamrock, McCracken and Castlemaine breweries to form Carlton & United Breweries (CUB). In the same year, the letters VB were first added to the label of the Victoria Brewery’s Bitter Ale. The CUB website has a timeline with some wonderful old photos. More
According to legend, Hans Irvine, then owner of Great Western wines, heard that Dame Nellie Melba had expressed the wish to bathe in champagne. He commanded that a bathtub be brought to the winery and filled with 152 bottles of his sparkling wine – known in those pre-D.O.C. days as champagne. The diva bathed behind a screen. Cellar-hands later bottled the bubbly and claimed that, although 152 bottles went in, 153 bottles came out. In 1910, one of the underground drives at Great Western was named after Melba. Seppelts bought Great Western in 1918.
The College of Domestic Economy was founded to give women an education in domestic arts and sciences. It offered diploma courses for teachers of domestic economy and dressmaking and vocational training for the hospitality and clothing industries. The Superindendent was Miss M. Sandes, who had a diploma from the Technical College in Sydney. In 1926, with the financial support of State Treasurer Sir William McPherson, it became the Emily McPherson College. More
In 1907, the Mildura Raisin Trust and the Renmark Raisin Trust joined to become the Australian Dried Fruits Association (A.D.F.A.). The two organisations had been established in 1895 to protect the interests of dried fruit growers in irrigation areas along the Murray River. A.D.F.A. is now known as Dried Fruits Australia.
Peters Ice Cream was founded in Sydney by American migrant Fred Peters. His first Peters Ice Cream family bricks, reputed to be made to his mother’s recipe, were sold from a horse and cart in the suburb of Manly. In 1927, Peters’ Victorian factory opened in Melbourne. The slogan “The health food of a nation” lasted into the 1970s, when regulations about health claims forced a change. The brand was sold in 2014 to UK-based R&R Ice Cream, which has now partnered with Nestle to form the world’s largest ice cream company, Froneri. More
SAO biscuits are up there with Lamingtons among the “iconic” Aussie foods. They are still made by Arnott’s. There are conflicting reports about the origins of the SAO name. While some accounts say they’re named after a boat, it’s widely believed that SAO stands for Salvation Army Officer. This was in honour of William Arnott’s son Arthur, who joined the Salvation Army . More
The first person known to have planted rice in south-eastern Australia was Jō Takasuka, an import/export merchant who had previously been a parliamentarian in Japan. In 1906 he sowed 35 acres (14 ha) of rice on flood-prone land rented from a farmer in Nyah, on the Murray River. He struggled to produce a commercial crop, but in 1914 the Victorian Government granted him 200 acres of land to continue rice cultivation in the area. More
The world’s first patent for a household electric stove was issued to David Curle Smith, the Kalgoorlie Municipal Electrical Engineer, in November 1905. About fifty appliances were then built and leased to customers in Kalgoorlie in the following years. The design lacked a thermostat – the temperature was controlled by the number of elements in use. David Curle Smith’s wife, Helen Nora, wrote a cookbook to promote her husband’s invention. Thermo-Electrical Cooking Made Easy (Kalgoorlie, 1907) is therefore the world’s first cookbook for an electric stove.
Although camp pie in various guises had been around for many decades, it appears that Foggitt Jones of Queensland were the first to market it in Australia.Their Rex Camp Pie became a well-known brand. The famous “Camp Pie” Case in the 1920s was a legal dispute over trade marks between Foggitt Jones and the Darling Downs Co-operative. (Image courtesy of Tommy’s Pack Fillers) More
While the General Mills website claims Peck’s Pastes were introduced to Australia in 1904, the brand advertised 60th birthday specials in 1961. Which is correct? It’s hard to say, as the first advertising seems to have appeared in 1906. Pecks’s Pastes enjoyed a boom in the 1950s and ’60s and the name lingers on – although they’re called “Tasty Spreads” these days. More
In June 1904, the Kalgoorlie Sun recounted the tale of a chook raffle in a local pub. The chicken, in this case was a live one, at least initially. However, the winner had left the pub before the draw and a week or so later, after he’d failed to return to claim his prize, it ended up on the pub’s menu. Poultry raffles were not unusual, but weren’t quite the same as the regular Friday night chook raffle that became a tradition at Aussie pubs and clubs from the 1950s. More
Melbourne Bitter was born in 1904, when a group of pub owners formed the Melbourne Cooperative Brewery Company and began producing beer in Abbotsford, Victoria. Over 150 publicans were shareholders. Melbourne Bitter gained a reputation as a premium beer and was distributed in other states including Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. More
Built by the retail magnate Mark Foy, the Medlow Bath Hydro opened in 1904 as a hydropathic sanitorium and health resort, offering visitors the opportunity to “take the waters” in European style while enjoying superb views over the Blue Mountains. However, in the absence of natural mineral springs, foul-tasting mineral waters were imported from Germany. When the appeal of the health resort waned, the hotel was re-branded as the Hydro Majestic and promoted as a luxury getaway. More
William Farrer bred various strains of wheat to resist the common crop disease of rust. After many years of cross-breeding, he developed the Federation strain in 1900, just prior to the Federation of the Australian colonies. It was released to farmers in 1903 and contributed to the trebling of Australia’s wheat harvest over the next 20 years. More
The term ‘barbecue’, referring to a cooking method was certainly known in England well before the First Fleet departed for Botany Bay. But it was little used in Australia until the mid-1800s, and then normally in reference to events held in America.The first use of the term for an Australian event seems to be a report of the Waverley Bowls Club’s Leg o’ Mutton Barbecue in 1903.
The bunya nut, from the Bunya Pine, was an important food source for aboriginal people of Queensland’s Darling Downs area. Every three years, many different tribes would travel to the region to feast on a bumper crop. The introduction of government settlements displaced indigenous people and these large gatherings ceased. The last large Bunya gathering is thought to have taken place in 1902.
No-one really knows the origin of neenish tarts, the bi-coloured pastries still widely available in Aussie cake shops. The first known mention of ‘nenish cakes’ is in an advertisement for the New South Wales Ice and Fresh Food Company in 1895. In 1901 a columnist calling herself “Housewife” published a recipe in The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser. The recipe was evidently new, as she remarked that she hadn’t had time to test it. More
Australia’s 1901 Population Census recorded around 14 per cent of Australia’s total population as working in the agricultural and pastoral industries. This contrasts with around 1.4 per cent who could be classified as farmers in 2011. The number of workers in the farming sector in 1901 was, in fact, underestimated. The census did not count aboriginal people who were working as stockmen and in other roles on pastoral properties.
Although others had earlier experimented with tea growing – notably the Cutten brothers at Bingil Bay in North Queensland – James Griffiths succeeded in producing significant quantities of Australian-grown tea in the Dandenong Ranges outside Melbourne. Griffiths Brothers established one of Australia’s first coffee and tea distribution businesses in 1879.
As early as the 1860s, Chinese immigrants were growing peanuts in North Queensland. Commercial farming began in 1901 when Samuel Long planted 3 acres (1.2 hectares) in the Kingaroy district. Regarded as pioneers of the Queensland peanut industry, Ben and Harry Young, sons of another Chinese immigrant, began a larger operation nearby in 1919.’ More
A grand Federation banquet at Sydney Town Hall celebrated the creation of a nation, as the separate British colonies joined together to form the Commonwealth of Australia. The menu was presented in French, perhaps to demonstrate the international credentials of the new nation and to show that these colonials knew how to do things properly. More
There are various stories (probably apocryphal) about how lamingtons were invented. However, it seems likely that they were devised by Armand Galland, the French chef to Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1901. There is debate about whether lamingtons were first served at Government House, at the opening of the Ipswich Technical College or, as the locals claim, at the governor’s country residence at Toowoomba. Lord Lamington reputedly referred to the cakes as “those bloody, poofy, woolly biscuits”. More
The 1900 Meat Supervision Act introduced a requirement for meat to be inspected at the time of slaughter. Only inspected and branded meat could be sold. This was followed in 1905 by the Milk and Dairy Supervision Act and the Pure Food Act, setting new standards for food hygiene and lack of adulteration. Other states soon followed Victoria’s lead. More
Hans William Henry Irvine extended the underground cellars at Great Western, imported a French winemaker from the champagne house of Pommery and made wine by the traditional champagne method. All bottles and machinery were imported from France. His Great Western sparkling wine, the first successful champagne-style wine in Australia, won the gold medal at the 1900 Paris exhibition. More
The Dairy Farmers Co-operative Milk Co. Ltd was among several dairy co-operatives formed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to help farmers market their milk and butter in Sydney. The co-operative, comprising 65 stakeholders, was founded on January 15, 1900. Many of the members were dairy farmers from the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Dairy Farmers is now owned by the Japanese Kirin Holdings, via its subsidiary Lion Dairy & Drinks. More
Until around 1880, most of the tea consumed in Australia came from China. However, from this time tea from Empire countries, like India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) began to make inroads into the market. In around 1890, Hawthorn, Rhodes & Co., major tea importers and the Melbourne representatives of the Pekin Tea Company, began selling blended teas under the Robur brand. In 1900, the company was purchased by James Service & Co and from then on traded as the Robur Tea Company. More
Swiss doctor Maximilian Bircher-Benner invented muesli at his health clinic . He called it the “apple diet dish” or Apfeldiätspeise . The name muesli appeared later and is derived from an old German word for “puree”. His method called for combining a small amount of oat flakes and water with chopped apples, lemon juice, condensed milk or cream, honey and chopped nuts. More